Dadap Serep – Pengobatan Alternatif

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Erythrina variegata

 

 

Erythrina variegata is a much-branched deciduous tree growing from 3 – 27 metres tall

It has a fluted bole, the thick and sappy bole and branches are armed with large, scattered prickles, though cultivated forms are often unarmed

variegata,flowers

The plant is widely cultivated throughout the tropics, but especially in India, as an ornamental tree, a living fence, hedge plant, medicinal plant, shade tree and for soil conservation

 

It is very important as a support plant for crops such as betel, black pepper, jasmine, grape and yams

 

It is often a component of agroforestry systems, and all over S and SE Asia and the Pacific islands is seen as a valuable multipurpose tree

 

The tree is also grown as an ornamental – the leaves of the variegated forms and the flowers being very showy

 

Erythrina variegata has a very large distribution in the tropics and has been introduced into a large number of countries through cultivation. This taxon is not considered to be threatened. The plant is classified as ‘Least Concern’ in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)

 

The leaves and seeds contain low concentrations of alkaloids and have narcotic properties. The seeds contain the alkaloids hypaphorine, erysodine, and erysopine; the leaves and bark contain the poison erythrinine, which act upon the nervous system

 

Saponins are present in the leaves, bark and seeds

 

Although poisonous, saponins are poorly absorbed by the human body and so most pass through without harm. Saponins are quite bitter and can be found in many common foods such as some beans. They can be removed by carefully leaching in running water. Thorough cooking, and perhaps changing the cooking water once, will also normally remove most of them. However, it is not advisable to eat large quantities of food that contain saponins. Saponins are much more toxic to some creatures, such as fish, and hunting tribes have traditionally put large quantities of them in streams, lakes etc in order to stupefy or kill the fish

 

Hydrocyanic acid has been found in the leaves, stems, roots and fruits

 

Botanical References

Range

E. Africa – Tanzania, Indian Ocean Islands, India, China, Myanmar, Malaysia, Indonesia, Pacific Islands

Habitat

Coastal forests

 

Coastal lowland bush and shrubland areas and the dry edges of mangrove forests, usually on sandy loams; at elevations up to 500 metres

 

Properties

Conservation Status

Least Concern

Edibility Rating

Medicinal Rating

Other Uses Rating

Habit

Deciduous Tree

Height

20.00 m

Growth Rate

Fast

Pollinators

Birds, Insects

Self-fertile

Yes

Cultivation Status

Cultivated, Ornamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

Succeeds in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate areas at elevations up to 1,200 metres

 

Plants grow best in areas where the annual rainfall is in the region of 800 – 1,500mm, the mean minimum temperature is around 20°c and the mean maximum temperature is 32°c

baca juga  Dispepsia

 

Succeeds in a moderately fertile, well-drained soil

 

Plants are tolerant of salt-laden winds and moderate levels of salt in the soil

 

Prefers a pH in the range 5 – 7, tolerating 4.5 – 7.5

 

Unpruned trees may attain a height of 15 – 20 metres in 8 – 10 years

 

Subsequently, the growth rate slows down, but the main stem continues to increase in diameter

 

The tree can live to about 100 years

In general, rooting is superficial, with most roots in the upper 30 cm of the soil; older trees, however, root deeper

 

When trees are used to support vines, side branches are lopped at interval of 6 – 8 weeks, the foliage being used as green manure or fodder

 

When planted for shade, lower branches are removed immediately after establishment and only a few high branches are allowed to grow

 

Subsequently, the trees are pollarded once per year in the middle of the rainy season

A very variable species

 

The seeds float and can be dispersed by ocean currents

 

All species in this genus are believed to be self-compatible. Their flowers are adapted to pollination by birds, though various insects can also cause fertilization. The various species of Erythrina can all, as far as is known, be intercrossed to produce fertile hybrids. Those species most closely related to each other cross fairly readily, but even species that are quite distant can hybridize

  

This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby

 

 

The young, tender leaves and young sprouts are eaten as a vegetable

 

Eaten in curries

 

 

Medicinal

The leaves and bark are widely used as cures in many South-East Asian countries

 

Research has shown the presence of various active compounds in the plant.
Alkaloids are present in low concentrations in the leaves and seeds, which give them narcotic properties

 

The seeds contain hypaphorine, erysodine, and erysopine

 

The leaves and bark contain the poison erythrinine, which acts upon the nervous system

 

Saponins are present in the leaves, bark and seeds

 

Hydrocyanic acid has been found in the leaves, stems, roots and fruits

 

The seed contains 0.75% of the free amino acid histidine, an amount only paralleled by E. Fusca

 

The bark is astringent and anthelmintic

 

It is used as an antipyretic, in decoction to treat liver problems and intermittent fever

 

It has also been used to treat rheumatism and to relieve asthma and coughs

baca juga  Ternyata Ini, 11 Manfaat Ciplukan bagi Kesehatan

 

A decoction of the bark and leaves is used to treat dysentery

 

When sweetened, it is considered a good expectorant

 

A decoction of the leaves has been used to treat mastitis

 

An ointment made by boiling the leaves with ripe coconut is applied to venereal buboes and pains in the joints

 

The roots and leaves are often employed to alleviate fever

 

The flowers are bechic and are used to treat afflictions of the chest

 

Crushed seeds are used to treat cancer and abscesses, and are boiled in a little water as a remedy for snake bites

Agroforestry Uses:

Grown as hedge plant or shade tree in various parts of the tropics
 

It is occasionally grown as a shade tree for cocoa and coffee, though it is not recommended in Java for this purpose as it is leafless for up to a few months per year
 

Stakes thrust into the ground readily take root, so they are used for making enclosures about gardens

 

The leaves are used as green manure
Most Erythrina species are very easy to grow from cuttings, with even quite large branches striking well. In addition, they generally fix atmospheric nitrogen, have nutrient-rich leaves that make an excellent soil-enriching mulch, often have open crowns that do not overly restrict light, and are also often quite thorny and can provide impenetrable barriers to protect from unwelcome intrusions. Many species are therefore used as living fences to provide boundaries and livestock-proof hedges

It is used as live support for betel nut (Piper betle), black pepper (Piper nigrum), vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) and yam (Dioscorea spp.) vines

A columnar cultivar is planted in hedges as a wind break

Blackened dried leaves are worn for their scent

The white wood is ground into a powder and used as a face powder

variegata plant

A dark brown gum is obtained from the tree. It is of no value

The wood is white, but darker towards the centre. It is light in weight, soft, spongy and fibrous. It is used locally for making spears, shields, troughs, outriggers for canoes, and as floats for fishing-nets

The soft, white wood is easy to carve and so ir used for making statues, toys etc

The wood has been tested as a source of pulp for the paper industry. The fibre is acceptable for pulping, having good length, high flexibility and slenderness ratio and low Rankel’s ratio

The wood can smoulder for a long time without going out and so is traditionally used for keeping a fire in the house

Fresh seeds, and those harvested within 3 – 6 months of maturity, can be sown without any special treatment. Germination rates are generally high and are often 100%. Seeds over 6 months old may take between 12 – 18 months to germinate due to their hard seed coat which becomes tougher with age. Soaking them in hot water, or abrading their seedcoat, can reduce this time considerably. They may be added to water which has just fallen below boiling point and left in the water as it cools for a minimum of one hour, but up to 12 hours for seed 3 years or more old, and then sown in the usual way. Alternatively, file the seeds with a slender triangular file. A groove can be made through the sides of the seed coat with care so as to avoid damaging the cotyledons or embryo, which usually results in the death of the seeds from fungal attack or in malformed and weakened seedlings

baca juga  8 Manfaat Ajaib Nanas, Mencegah Kanker Hingga Asma

Seeds of most species produce strong seedlings from healthy seeds in almost any well-drained soil, with a minimum of trouble from damping-off disease

Seed – germinates in 8 – 10 days. Seedlings attain a transplantable height of 30 – 50 cm in 8 – 10 weeks
Large cuttings, 2 – 3 metres long and 5 – 8 cm in diameter, root well
Using large cuttings makes sure that new shoots are above grazing height and also allows fast early growth
Branch cuttings with the terminal buds are sometimes used to obtain tall, straight-stemmed trees erythrina variegata

Sinonim: Erythrina Lithosperma Miq. Non Bl.
Familia: papilionaceace (Leguminosae).

Nama daerah
Erythrinae Folium; Daun Dadap Serep.

Bagian yang Digunakan
Daun dan kulit kayu

Kegunaan

Daun:

  • Demam
  • Pelancaran ASI
  • Sariawan perut
  • Mencegah keguguran (obat luar)
  • Nifas (obat luar)
  • Pendarahan bagian dalam (obat luar)
  • Sakit perut (obat luar).

Kulit kayu:

  • Batuk
  • Sariawan perut

Cara pemakaian

Sariawan perut
Kulit kayu dadap serap 3 gram, sidoyawah 3 gram, dayun prasman segar 4 gram, akar manis china 4 gram, air 110 ml. cara pembuatan: dibuat infuse. Contoh pemakaian: diminum sheari 1 kali 100 ml. lama pengobatan : diulang selam 14 hari

Pendarahan/ peradangan bagian dalam
Daun dadap serap segar secukupnya, air secukupnya. Cara pembuatan: dipipis hingga berbentuk pasta. Contoh pemakaian: dibalurkan pada bagian yang diperkirakan terjadi pendarahan bagian dalam. Lama pengobatan: diperbaharui setiap 3 jam.

Sakit perut
Daun serap segar secukupnya, daun cocor bebek secukupnya, air secukupnya. Cara pembuatan: dipipis hingga berbentuk pasta. Contoh pemakaian: dibalurkan pada perut. Lama pengobatan: diperbaharui setiap 3 jam sekali.

Demam
Selain sebagai obat penurun panas yang diminum, untuk mempercepat penurunan suhu badan Anda bisa mengompres dengan daun dadap serep yang ditumbuk halus.

Mencegah keguguran

Untuk menghindari keguguran, para ibu yang sering istirahat setiap hari, kompres perut dengan daun dadap serep yang ditumbuk halus. Oleskan sedikit kental dan pakailah gurita.

Nifas
Ibu sehabis melahirkan sering mengalami nifas. Untuk menjaga kesehatan ibu, dapat digunakan bobokan daun daap serep dan memakai gurita.

Komposisi
Alkaloid, eritradina, eritrina, eritramina, hipaforina, dan erisovina

Sumber: Herlina Widyaningrum dan Tim Solusi Alternatif (Buku Obat Nusantara).

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